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It has been suggested that Human flesh search engine be merged into this article. Doxing may be carried out for various reasons, including to aid law enforcement, business analysis, risk analytics, extortion, coercion, harassment, online shaming, and liam halligan bitcoin justice. Look up dox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Doxing” is a neologism that has evolved over its brief history. The term dox derives from the slang “dropping dox,” which, according to Wired writer Mat Honan, was “an old-school revenge tactic that emerged from hacker culture in 1990s. Consequently, doxing often comes with a negative connotation, because it can be a vehicle for revenge via the violation of privacy. Doxware is a cryptovirology attack invented by Adam Young and further developed with Moti Yung that carries out doxing extortion via malware.

It was first presented at West Point in 2003. The attack is rooted in game theory and was originally dubbed “non-zero sum games and survivable malware. The attack differs from the extortion attack in the following way. In the extortion attack, the victim is denied access to its own valuable information and has to pay to get it back, where in the attack that is presented here the victim retains access to the information but its disclosure is at the discretion of the computer virus. Doxware is the converse of ransomware. In the doxware cryptovirology attack, the attacker or malware steals the victim’s data and threatens to publish it unless a fee is paid.

Anyone can harvest information from the Internet about individuals. There is no particular structure in place for doxing, meaning someone may seek out any kind of information related to the target. A basic Web search can yield results. It is also possible to derive a person’s name and home address from a cell-phone number, through such services as reverse phone lookup. In addition to these, a doxxer may use other methods to harvest information.

These include information search by domain name and location searching based on an individual’s IP address. It is important to note that a hacker may obtain an individual’s dox without making the information public. A hacker may look for this information in order to extort or coerce a known or unknown target. Also, a hacker may harvest a victim’s information in order to break into their Internet accounts, or to take over their social media accounts. The victim may also be shown their details as proof that they have been doxed in order to intimidate. The perpetrator may use this fear and intimidation to gain power over the victim in order to extort or coerce.

The ethics of doxing by journalists, on matters that they assert are issues of public interest, is an area of much controversy. Many authors have argued that doxing in journalism blurs the line between revealing information in the interest of the public and releasing information about an individual’s private life against their wishes. Following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, vigilantes on Reddit wrongly identified a number of people as suspects. In the 1990s anti-abortion activists secured abortion providers’ personal information, such as their home addresses, phone numbers, and photographs, and posted them as a hit list, ruled by the courts to be an immediate incitement to violence. In December 2011, Anonymous exposed detailed information of 7,000 members of law enforcement in response to investigations into hacking activities. In November 2014, Anonymous began releasing the identities of members of the Ku Klux Klan. The Chinese Internet phenomenon of the “Human flesh search engine” shares much in common with doxing.

Specifically, it refers to distributed, sometimes deliberately crowdsourced searches for similar kinds of information through use of digital media. Journalists with The Journal News of Westchester County, New York, were accused of doxing gun owners in the region in a story the paper published in December 2012. Though the source of her sleuthing was primarily the public record, she was heavily criticized for her doxing by users on Reddit. The Satoshi Nakamoto case brought doxing to greater attention, particularly on platforms such as Twitter, where users questioned the ethics of doxing in journalism. Many Twitter users condemned doxing in journalism, wherein they argued that the practice was seemingly acceptable for professional journalists but wrong for anyone else. Curt Schilling used doxing to identify several people responsible for “Twitter troll” posts with obscene, sexually explicit comments about his teenaged daughter.

In December 2015, Minneapolis city councilwoman Alondra Cano used her Twitter account to publish private cellphone numbers and e-mail addresses of critics who wrote about her involvement in a Black Lives Matter rally. In November 2016, Politico editor Michael Hirsh resigned after publishing the home address of white nationalist Richard B. In July 2017, the United States’ Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity, which was established in May 2017 by U. This act drew criticism from Theresa Lee, a staff attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union’s Voting Rights Project, who stated, “This cavalier attitude toward the public’s personal information is especially concerning given the commission’s request for sensitive data on every registered voter in the country. Federal agencies often solicit and release public comments on proposed legislation. Some agencies may require that you include personal information, such as your name and email address, on the comment form. What doxxing is, and why it matters”.

The Security of Our Election Systems”. The FBI’s warning about doxing was too little too late”. Doxed: how Sabu was outed by former Anons long before his arrest”. Non-Zero Sum Games and Survivable Malware. IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society Information Assurance Workshop. What is Doxing and How it is Done? Someone is blackmailing dark web users to pay up or get doxxed”.

Gamergate hits new low with attempts to send Swat teams to critics”. The dangers and ramifications of doxxing and swatting”. Of Bitcoin and doxxing: Is revealing Satoshi Nakamoto’s identity okay because it was Newsweek and not Reddit? Family of Sunil Tripathi – missing student wrongly linked to Boston marathon bombing – thank well-wishers for messages of support”. The cause of the student’s death has still be determined but the medical examiner said no foul play was suspected. Akhil spent the most time with Sunny before his suicide, weekends at Brown where he tried to help his youngest child foresee a future.

Reflections on the Recent Boston Crisis”. The origins of online stalking of abortion providers. What you need to know about Anonymous’s big anti-KKK operation”. Ferguson KKK Doubles Down By Threatening To Shoot People Wearing Anonymous Guy Fawkes Masks”. Anonymous denies releasing incorrect Ku Klux Klan member information”. Anonymous posts Ku Klux Klan alleged sympathisers list”. Human flesh search engines: Chinese vigilantes that hunt victims on the web”.